More than 60 inscriptions show the rule of the Vijayanagar Kings over this area.
A record of A.D. 1372 from Muttuvancheri shows the rule of the Vijayanaga king
Kampana over this district. A line of more than 7 Chiefs of the Kachchiyaraya of
Vilandai ruled over Ariyalur region as subordinates of the Vijayanagar kings.
In A.D. 1573 one Arasunilaiyitta Krishnappa Malavarayar founded the rule of Ariyalur
Palayam as a subordinate of the Gingee Nayak and Sriranga-I of the Vijayanagar.
Up to A.D. 1817, 16 Chiefs ruled from Ariyalur. They built many temples and
patronized art and letters.
Similarly one Chinna Nalla Kalatkal Tola Udaiyar founded the rule of the Palayakkars
of Udaiyarpalayam. They also patronized art and letters and built beautiful palaces
and temples in Udaiyarpalayam which still exists recalling the glorious rule of this
family in this district.
Jatavarman Sundarapandya invaded the Chola country and captured it.
Maravarman Kulasekara Pandya-I (1268-1318) captured the capital
Gangaikondacholapuram in A. D. 1279 and brought this district under
his control. 49 inscriptions of the Pandyas show their rule over this
area from A.D.1255 to 1370.
Hoysala kings Viranarasimha , Virasomesvara and Ramanatha held sway over
this area for some time and helped the Chola king Rajaraja-III from the
attack of the Pandyas. Thirumalapadi and Kamarasavalli were the places of
the army camps of the Hoysalas.
The Bijapur Sultans also held sway over this area. Sherkan Lodhi ruled this area from
his capital at Valikandapuram. Later he was defeated by Mahratta King Sivaji in 1677.
Sivaji camped for some time at Thirumalapadi and settled the dispute with his brother
Ekoji, who was the then Ruler of Thanjavur. The Moghul King Aurangazeb captured the
Carnatic from the Mahrattas and appointed Zulfikar Khan and Sadatulla Khan as Nawab
of Carnatic. They invaded Ariyalur, Thanjavur and Trichy and extracted tribute from
the Palayakars . Vijaya Oppilla Malavarayar accepted the suzerainty of the Nawabs.
During the Carnatic wars in A. D. 1755 and 1757 the French attacked Ariyalur. But the
British sent an army to protect the Ariyalur Palayakar. In A.D. 1780 the two Palayams
sought the help of Hyder Ali and got rid of the yoke of the Nawabs. But later after
the defeat of Hyder Ali by the British the Palayakars accepted the rule of the
British and paid Peshkas to them. Lastly, when the Carnatic was made over to the
British in 1801 Ariyalur and Udaiyarpalayam became the Zamindari under the British
and it was also abolished in 1950 after the Independence.
In the freedom struggle also Ariyalur District has played a very significant role.
Ariyalur Sabapathi Pillai, Natesa Ayyar, Ganapathi Reddiyar, Natarajan Pillai,
Eravangudi Padmanathan, Ariyalur Manogirao, Kuppusamy, Abaranji, Appasamy,
Virabadran, Rangarajan, Vikkiramangalam, Alagesam pillai, Manakal, Sadasivam
Pillai were some of the prominent freedom fighters from this district.